The O.O. Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of Ukraine was founded in 1953 as a result of fusion of the Institute of Experimental Biology and Pathology (IEBP) of the Ministry of Public Health of Ukrainian S.S.R. and the Institute of Clinical Physiology (ICP) of the Academy of Sciences of Ukrainian S.S.R.
Both Institutes were founded in 1931-1934 as a result of initiative of the academician O.O. Bogomoletz, the world-known scientist, who was a director and scientific leader of those two Institutes till 1946. O.O. Bogomoletz was a director of the IEBP and R.E. Kavetsky was a director of the ICP from 1946 to 1953.
The scientific activity of the Institutes was of great importance for the development of Physiology. In those Institutes the research problems of allergy, immunity, hypoxia and tumor growth as well as the most important questions of the endocrinology, gerontology and geriatria were elaborated. On the base of the scientific research O.O. Bogomoletz created the original conceptions which made the major contribution to the development of some fields of Physiology. Among them there are the physiology of connective tissue, the effects influenced by transfusion of blood, reactivity of the organism, cytotoxical serums and others.
In 1953, A.M. Vorobyev, the Corresponding Member of the NAS of Ukraine became the director of the newly established O.O. Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology. From 1956 till 1966 Academician of the NAS of Ukraine A.F. Makarchenko was a head of the Institute. During that period the Departments of Electrophysiology (lead by Academician of Ukr.NAS D.V. Vorontsov), General Physiology (at the head of Academician P.G. Kostyuk), Biophysics (lead by Corresponding Member of Ukr.NAS A.A. Gorodetsky), Physiology of Aging (lead by Doctor Medical Sciences N.V. Lauer) and others were organized.
Since 1966 till now days Academician P.G. Kostyuk is the director of the Institute.
The O.O. Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology is a scientific research center in area of molecular physiology, biophysics, neurophysiology, pathological physiology. The Institute was the first place in the Former Soviet Union where microelectrode technique was applied to investigate of structural and functional organization of neuronal centers, biophysical and molecular mechanisms of neuronal excitation and inhibition. Methods of intracellular dialysis in cell soma have been developed and applied for investigation of membrane and molecular mechanisms of nerve cell functions. The new data on the physical and chemical processes in nerve and muscle cells, on mechanisms of synaptic transmission, on ion mechanisms of excitation have been obtained. The order of involvement and response on irritation of different groups of the cortical neurons were determined and mechanisms of the inhibitory process in the cortex were found.
The modulatory influences of different brain parts on cardiovascular reflexes have been determined, the interrelation between central and peripheral mechanisms of vessel tone regulation under functional load have been studied. The original model of acute myocardial dystrophy leading to shock has been developed. important data There were obtained the important data on the immunogenous disturbances in the cardiovascular system.
The new complex methods for determination of efficiency, condition and degree of training of sportsmen, methods of functional diagnostic of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were elaborated. The new methods of investigation of human higher nervous activity were proposed and relevant equipment was developed. The research on determination of the intensity of labor , on elaboration of physiological criteria for the professional selection were carried out. The method of optimization of doses of mineral water 'Naftusia' was elaborated, that permitted to increase efficiency of spa treatment of kidney and liver diseases.