Scientific workers of the Department carried out the fundamental investigations that allow to determinate the total and specific mechanisms of the hypoxic states development associated with the types of hypoxia, age, gender, and genetic peculiarities covered all links of oxygen transport and utilization in human and animal organisms. These investigations have determined the mechanisms of relationship between structural and functional parameters of gas-transporting systems regulated by metabolic disturbances, changes in mitochondrial oxidation, prooxidant-antioxidant balance, nitric oxide systems in different tissues (brain, liver, heart, lung, kidney, skeletal muscle, periodontum) under hypoxic states of different genesis. The important fundamental and applied achievements of the Department connected with experimental and clinical studies of intermittent hypoxia. It was discovered mechanisms of the efficiency of intermittent hypoxic training at the systemic, organic, tissue, cellular, subcellular, and genetic levels. The significant fundamental and applied results have been received about determination of pathogenetic ways of the organism adaptive possibilities increasing by means of the new pharmacological agents with antihypoxic, antioxidant, metabolic and cytoprotective spectrum of action (yacton, splenozid, glutargin, quercetin, mexidol, actovegin, curcumin, thiotriazolin, dialipon turbo, capicor, etc.). As a result of investigation of the adaptive-dysadaptive mechanisms of human staying at the Ukrainian Antarctic station Academician Vernadsky, there were developed the first national regulations of medical and biological selection of candidates for the expedition, medical and psycho-physiological support of winterer’s team and the means of correction of functional disorders of breathing in participants of Antarctic expeditions. It was first shown the physiological significance of allelic polymorphism of HIF - 1α gene in human adaptation to hypoxia and extremal factors of Polar latitudes.